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It is the seed left after the separation of long fibres from cotton, and serves as a good source of cellulose for ruminants. The process continues by spinning threads from the remaining, seedless white fiber. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The most important is the fiber or lint, which is used in making cotton cloth. Todays cutting-edge machin… But recently, long-term research from Cotton Incorporated has paved the way for an expanded use of cottonseed as a foodstuff. Today, so many products are created from cotton. The seed hair, or cotton fibre, reaching a maximum length of about 6 cm (2.5 inches) in long-fibre varieties, is known as lint. Whole cottonseed is another feed product of cottonseed used to feed livestock. To avoid damage to the cotton by wind or rain, it is picked as soon as the bolls open, but since the bolls do not all reach maturity simultaneously, an optimum time is chosen for harvesting by mechanical means. Ginned cotton is shipped in bales to a textile mill for yarn manufacturing. Conventional cotton production requires more insecticides than any other major crop, and the production of organic cotton, which relies on nonsynthetic insecticides, has been increasing in many places worldwide. Other Products Derived From Cotton Plants Apart from fibre, the cotton plant supplies seeds that can result in a variety of products. A species of boll weevil resistant to chlorinated hydrocarbons was recorded in the late 1950s; this species is combatted effectively with a mixture of toxaphene and DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), which has been outlawed in the United States and some other countries, however. The bollworm (Heliothis zea, also known as the corn earworm) feeds on cotton and many other wild and cultivated plants. Cotton seeds are valuable by-products. Each fiber is a single elongated cell that is flat twisted and ribbon-like with a wide inner hollow (lumen). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Cotton comes from plants that produce seed pods filled with ball-shaped clumps of cotton fiber. The fibres are composed of about 87 to 90 percent cellulose (a carbohydrate plant substance), 5 to 8 percent water, and 4 to 6 percent natural impurities. Cotton is easily spun into yarn as the cotton fibe… Clothing and household items are the largest uses, but industrial products account from many thousands of bales. Cotton Plant Gossypium Herbaceum. Manufacturer of Cotton Processing Plant, Cotton Plant, Absorbent Cotton Plant, Cotton Plant Machinery and Surgical Cotton Plant offered by Shree Ambica Engineering Works & Company, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Until that time, cottonseed oil will be the main edible product from this wonderful plant. It is comfortable to wear because it absorbs and releases moisture quickly. Cotton fabrics can be extremely durable and resistant to abrasion. Cotton is used to make a number of textile products. Combine harvesting ripe cotton in Alabama. Cotton accepts many dyes, is usually washable, and can be ironed at relatively high temperatures. Cotton is a shrubby plant that is a member of the Mallow family. Ecovative Design used cotton burrs, agricultural waste, to create a biodegradable packaging that can be composted after use. Bulgaria produces cotton on less than 1,000 ha. Cotton is an arable crop used mainly for fibre. Cotton By-products. Vice President, Research, Textile Research Institute, Princeton, New Jersey. Each cotton boll usually contains 27-45 seeds, and attached to each seed is between 10,000 – 20,000 tiny fibres about 28mm in length. A picker (picking machine) then wraps the fibres into a lap. Limited control of damage by insect pests can be achieved by proper timing of planting and other cultural practices or by selective breeding of varieties having some resistance to insect damage. Cotton is a perennial that farmers grow on an annual schedule. The second group contains the standard medium-staple cotton, such as American Upland, with staple length from about 1.3 to 3.3 cm (0.5 to 1.3 inches). Although cotton can be grown between latitudes 30° N and 30° S, yield and fibre quality are considerably influenced by climatic conditions, and best qualities are obtained with high moisture levels resulting from rainfall or irrigation during the growing season and a dry, warm season during the picking period. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. © 2021 Cotton Incorporated. Linters from longer fibers are often used for medical supplies, while linters with shorter fibers are used in items ranging from gun powder to cotton balls and even X-ray film. A hybrid of T. stricta and T.recurvifolia, this plant has silver green leaves and produces bright pink bract with violet flowers. Much of it is exported in processed form, largely as burlap. AMERICA’S COTTON PRODUCERS AND IMPORTERS. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. In the future, there might be a process that can be used to help make the seeds safer for human consumption. In the drawing (drafting) stage, a series of variable-speed rollers attenuates and reduces the sliver to firm uniform strands of usable size. Cotton is attacked by several hundred species of insects, including such harmful species as the boll weevil, pink bollworm, cotton leafworm, cotton fleahopper, cotton aphid, rapid plant bug, conchuela, southern green stinkbug, spider mites (red spiders), grasshoppers, thrips, and tarnished plant bugs. An even coarser fibre is derived from coir, the outer…, Finally, there is evidence that cotton was cultivated and used for textiles.…. Handpicking, carried out over a period of several days, allows selection of the mature and opened bolls, so that a higher yield is possible. When it is in bloom it produces attractive yellow blossoms and pink blossoms at the same time. The seeds are delinted by a similar process to ginning. The first group includes the fine, lustrous fibres with staple length ranging from about 2.5 to 6.5 cm (about 1 to 2.5 inches) and includes types of the highest quality—such as Sea Island, Egyptian, and pima cottons. The Tillandsia 'Cotton Candy' is a tough air plant that is easy to care for. Cotton’s strength and absorbency makes it an ideal fabric to make clothes and homewares, and industrial products like tarpaulins, tents, hotel sheets, army uniforms and even astronauts’ inflight space suits. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Cotton also is used to make yarn used in crochet and knitting. Bed sheets often are made from cotton. The threads are then woven to make cloth, which can be dyed. The cotton plant belongs to the genus Gossypium of the family Malvaceae (mallow family); the same family as hollyhock, okra and hibiscus. Greece is the main cotton grower, with 80% of European cotton area, followed by Spain (mainly the region of Andalucía) with a share of 20%. Linters – the short fuzz on the seed – provide cellulose for making plastics, explosives and other products. Please click on these. Cotton has been cultivated and used to make fabrics for at least 7,000 years. Some linter is used to make candle wicks, string, cotton balls, cotton batting, paper, and cellulose products such as rayon, plastics, photographic film, and cellophane. While raw cotton contains fiber, due to how cotton is harvested, it also carries small plant parts and field trash (non-lint or foreign matter) that must be removed thoroughly. Two-thirds of the weight of the seed cotton (i.e., the seed with the adhering seed hair) consists of the seeds. Blends (composites) are made during yarn processing by joining drawn cotton with other staple fibres, such as polyester or casein. Equipment includes tractor, two-row stalk-cutter, disk (to shred the stalks), bedder (to shape the soil into ridges or seedbeds), planter, cultivator, sprayer, and harvester. ), in India (3000 B.C. Since the fiber is pervasive in what we wear, eat, and use on a daily basis, its easy to forget that it comes from a crop, and must be harvested each and every year to meet worldwide demand. During this period the seeds and their attached hairs develop within the boll, which increases considerably in size. Linters, the fuzz left after the ginning process, also have myriad industrial uses. The cotton bale is opened, and its fibres are raked mechanically to remove foreign matter (e.g., soil and seeds). I’m Fahey Byrum III, or Butch. I specialize in supplying these products at reasonable prices with personalized service. The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), the most serious cotton pest in the United States in the early 1900s, was finally controlled by appropriate cultivation methods and by the application of such insecticides as chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphates. The cotton shrub produces seedpods that burst open to reveal masses of fluffy cotton fibres. He seemed to enjoy several of the posts in my Cotton 101 series, especially the cotton dictionary, but I realized some quick and easy facts about cotton may be of interest too.. Currently, cotton is produced only in three EU countries on around 320,000 ha. The breeding of resistant varieties, however, has been more effective. What Cotton is Used For Every part of the cotton plant can be used. We have updated our Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy with important information about our collection and use of your data and your data privacy options. Folex TM , Aim TM , Display and ET TM are herbicidal-type defoliants that injure the plant, causing it to produce ethylene in response to this injury. For higher-quality yarn, card sliver is put through a combing machine, which straightens the staple further and removes unwanted short lengths, or noils. Finally, the roving is transferred to a spinning frame, where it is drawn further, twisted on a ring spinner, and wound on a bobbin as yarn. The fertilized blossoms fall off after a few days and are replaced by small green triangular pods, called bolls, that mature after a period of 55–80 days. Omissions? Updates? Through this web site I offer cotton, cotton plants, cotton bolls, Cotton Jewelry, & lots of other farm related products for the asking. Losses have been estimated as high as 50 percent in some African countries and in Brazil. Warp yarns often are treated chemically to prevent breaking during weaving. Cotton looms interlace the tense lengthwise yarns, called warp, with crosswise yarns called weft, or filling. The cotton plant is best known for producing soft, washable fiber, which outsells all others--including man-made fibers--in the United States. Cotton plants are subject to diseases caused by various pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and viruses and to damage by nematodes (parasitic worms) and physiological disturbances also classified as diseases. On our farm in Northeastern NC, we raise cotton, sage, corn, small grains, & soybeans. Clothes made out of cotton are especially light and comfortable. Least plentiful and most difficult to grow, long-staple cottons are costly and are used mainly for fine fabrics, yarns, and hosiery. Linters, fibres considerably shorter than the seed hair and more closely connected to the seed, come from a second growth beginning about 10 days after the first seed hairs begin to develop. De-seeded cotton is cleaned, carded (fibers aligned), spun, and woven into a fabric that is also referred to as cotton. The seeds are separated from the cotton fiber mechanically. Cotton, one of the world’s leading agricultural crops, is plentiful and economically produced, making cotton products relatively inexpensive. It may have existed in Egypt as early as 12,000 B.C. Its name refers to the cream-colored fluffy fibers surrounding small cottonseeds called a boll. Within 80–100 days after planting, the plant develops white blossoms, which change to a reddish colour. The cake, or meal, remaining after the oil is extracted is used in poultry and livestock feeds. Are native to most subtropical parts of the seed cotton ( i.e., the United States, and information Encyclopaedia! Also developed through genetic cotton plant products short fuzz on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted delivered... Human food or animal feed and even biodiesel be napped, a that. 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